By Doğu Perinçek
Chairman of Vatan Party (Türkiye)
Until today, Turkish states have been establishing organizations under names such as “Turkic Language States”. This is the first time unification takes place under the name “Turk”. We list the characteristics of the Turkish states and the policies of Vatan Party in two parts.
1. The common ground of Turkish states
1.1. The expression “Turk”
The expression “Turk” appeared on the stage of history in the 6th, 7th and 8th centuries with the “Türüks”, who are today generally referred to as the Göktürks. The Türük dynasty ruled all the peoples of Central Asia, from the Pacific Ocean to the Caspian Sea and the Byzantine borders. It is stated by Chinese and Turkish historians that “Tiler”, mentioned in Chinese sources in the 2000s BC, also comes from the word “Turk”. As we see in the Orkhon Inscriptions, at that time, Turkish-speaking tribes such as the Nine Oghuz, Kyrgyz, Karluk, Kipchaks, Tatars, Ediz, Onok, Turgish were called by their own names. It was only after they gathered under Gokturk rule that the whole world began to refer to them as Turks.
The Mamlūklu State, which ruled in Egypt between 1250 and 1517, named itself “Devlet-it Türkî” (Turkish State). The Republic of Türkiye was also founded under the name of Turk. Turkish states have been gathered under the name Turk.
1.2. Participation of friendly countries
We consider it beneficial that the founding charter of the Organization of Turkish States should state that friendly countries could also join. Although its name is Turk, it is appropriate not to limit the organization to ethnic unity. As a matter of fact, it is a positive development that the Russian Federation requested to become an observer member of the organization in November 2021, stating that there are autonomous Turkish Republics in Russia.
The close attention paid to the organization by Hungary, which has observer status, is also important. Hungarians speak a language cognate with Turkish. They are emphasizing their Asian identity in order to live with dignity between Russia and Germany.
The Organization of Turkish States should insist on keeping its doors open to friendly countries. It is very important that Binali Yıldırım, the Chairman of the Organization’s Assembly of Elders, called Russia and China “self-evident and natural members of the organization”. Thus, the Organization of Turkish States has declared that it will work in a manner to enhance Asian unity. We have already observed that this unity gave a good account in the face of the Colored Coup attempt in Kazakhstan.
1.3. Countries of the Oppressed World
All the countries that joined the Organization of Turkish States belong to the Oppressed World. Türkiye, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan are similar to each other in socio-economic terms; they are not among the developed capitalist countries, they are among the Developing Countries. Their economic structure is mostly agricultural, with animal husbandry predominating in more eastern regions. Türkiye and Kazakhstan, which have developed industries and relatively more advanced economic institutions, represent the Organization’s direction of development.
1.4. Rich natural resources
The member states of the Organization of Turkish States are located in a region rich in natural resources. The world’s richest oil and natural gas reserves, precious minerals such as uranium and gold are located in this region.
1.5. Mutually complementary tradition and background
The common background of the Turkish states includes industry, agriculture, natural resources, maritime territories, the experience of the Turkish and Soviet revolutions, the legacy of empires, and the achievements of the Enlightenment and secularism. Turkish states have an assertive power that complements each other. Their common ancestry and language strengthens their unity. In addition, the size of their territorial area is also a considerable source of strength. On the one hand, this assertive unification gives hope to the Developing Countries world, but on the other hand, it also causes some concerns in the international arena.
1.6. Strategic geography: Heartland of the world
The geography of the Turkish states is considered to be the strategic focus of the world. The geography extending from Türkiye to Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan is called the heartland of the world. The Bosphorus and Dardanelles Straits are under the sovereignty of Türkiye. Turkish states have access to the oceans through the Black Sea, the Mediterranean and the Caspian Sea.
1.7. Uninterrupted tradition and experience of state and empire
Turks’ state and army building has been an influential tradition in the history of the world. These peoples founded great states and empires such as Scythians, Huns, Gokturks, Uighurs, Kyrgyz, Ghaznavids, Seljuks, Genghis, Bulgarians, Golden Horde, Mamluks, Ottomans, Akkoyunlu, Chagatai, Timurids, Uzbeks and Mughals. Turks organized the world”s biggest armies. The state tradition in Central Asia was interrupted after the 17th-18th century, but this did not occur in Türkiye.
1.8. Eurasian countries
The Turkish states are all Asian. At the same time, they have territories extending to Europe. Two of the three countries in the world that have territories both in Asia and Europe, namely Türkiye and Kazakhstan, are Turkish states. The third Eurasian country, Russia, is also considered a self-evident and natural member of the Organization of Turkish States.
1.9. Membership to the Shanghai Cooperation Organization
Most members of the Organization of Turkish States are either members of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) or potential candidates for membership. Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan have been members of the SCO, which was established in 2001, from the very beginning. The organization’s dialogue partners include Türkiye and Azerbaijan. Through the SCO, Turkish states have also ties with Asian and European countries such as China, Russia, Tajikistan, India, Pakistan, Iran, Mongolia, Afghanistan, Belarus, Srilanka, Cambodia, Nepal and Armenia.
1.10. Independence from the Atlantic and friendship with China and Russia
All Turkish states are independent of the US-led Atlantic system and aligned with China and Russia. In addition, they have indispensable ties with China and Russia in the economic sphere. Türkiye is a ‘step-member’ of NATO. Türkiye has turned onto solidarity with Russia and China against the threats coming from the Atlantic. Other Turkish states also have military cooperations with Russia and China. Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, for example, are members, along with Russia, of the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO), established on October 7, 2002. Indeed, Russian troops under the CSTO helped Kazakhstan against the US-led Colored Revolution and were effective.
1.11. The Islamic faith and the background of secularism
The overwhelming majority of all the peoples of the Turkish states believe in Islam. At the same time, all of these countries have a very significant secular background and tradition stemming from the Turkish Revolution and the Soviet Revolution. The secularism is also very strong in neighbours like Russia and China.